This crucial heart English textbook, now in its 3rd version, introduces scholars to the big variety of literature written in England among 1150 and 1400.
New, completely revised version of this crucial heart English textbook.
Introduces the language of the time, giving counsel on pronunciation, spelling, grammar, metre, vocabulary and nearby dialects.
Now comprises extracts from ‘Pearl’ and Chaucer’s ‘Troilus and Criseyde’.
Bibliographic references were up-to-date throughout.
Each textual content is followed via certain notes.
Read Online or Download A Book of Middle English (3rd Edition) PDF
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Extra resources for A Book of Middle English (3rd Edition)
4e and ye, ow and 4ou, ower and 4our). The general use of you as a nominative form is a development of Early Modern English, and in Middle English the distinction between the nominative 4e and the accusative/dative ow or 4ou is generally well preserved. g. nominative wit, ‘we two’, 3/151, genitive unker, ‘of us two’, 2/151. 3 Third Person Pronouns: Masculine and Neuter Singular There were minor changes in the masculine and neuter pronouns. The masculine had an unstressed nominative form a, ‘he’, as in 7b/201.
These verbs retain the -i- in all parts of the present except the second and third persons singular of the indicative and the imperative singular. Hence in Ancrene Wisse, makien, inﬁnitive (4/13), makeG, third person singular (4/46), makieG, plural (4/3); in Piers Plowman, the inﬁnitives wedy, ‘weed’, 7b/66, and gladyen, ‘gladden’, 7b/126. g. serviG, ‘(they) serve’, 4/14, proferi (inﬁnitive), ‘offer’, 5/434. 3 Past Tense and Past Participle In some dialects the verb in the past tense has distinctions in form for the indicative and subjunctive in the singular, though the subjunctive plural is always the same as the indicative plural.
Ho, 8/470–2. ) ﬁrst age, 9/54. In 8/157, bale, ‘packages’, is treated as a singular noun with plural sense. A co-ordinated group of nouns may be regarded as a single entity: Ke sege and Ke assaut watz sesed, 9/1. After numerals nouns sometimes have no plural ending. g. g. 2 below). Examples are: xix wintre, 1/55, foure and twenty 4ere, 6/104, fyfty syKe, 14j/46. ‘Many’ is often accompanied by the singular: wes moni 4imston, 3/17, mony luﬂych lorde, 9/38. 3 Use of Cases 39 As in Old English, the neuter pronoun ‘it’ may be used with the verb are/were to refer to a plural subject: hit are my blody bretherne, 7b/217, hit arne refetyd, ‘they are fed’, 11/304.
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