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Extra resources for A grammar of Khwarshi
Lexically, in indigenous words, geminates occur only in the following adjectives and in one adverb: k’ottu ‘low’, žel_l_u ‘light’, x^ol_l_u ‘broad’, sassu ‘dark’, heU’U’e ‘most’, but this could have originated from the lexicalized emphatic forms. 2. Vowel system There are five basic vowels in Khwarshi and an additional one which is relatively rare /I/. This high central vowel /I/ occurs in the Kwantlada dialect but not in the Khwarshi Proper and Inkhokwari dialects. There is a tendency towards losing this vowel as the younger generation assimilates this vowel to the plain vowel /u/.
G. y-a^-l-a ‘V-open-POT-INF’ tIS-l-a ‘give-POT-INF’ qba-ll-a ‘write-POT-INF’ zo-ll-a ‘skate-POT-INF’ Sus-l-a ‘sleep-POT-INF’ The causative suffix -k’-/-x- is normally attached directly to the verbal stem with a final consonant. The use of the allomorph -ok’-/-ak’- depends on the final consonant of the verbal stem: the suffix -ok’-/-ak’- is used before /d/, /L/, and before /S/ in polysyllabic verbal stems. g. clever-CAUS-INF’ lol-x-a ‘boil-CAUS-INF’ dandiL-ok’-a ‘meet-CAUS-INF’ durid-ok’-a ‘run-CAUS-INF’ b-odo-xk’-a ‘HPL-work-CAUS-INF’ ur]id-ok’-a ‘think-CAUS-INF’ qba-xk’-a ‘write-CAUS-INF’ 34 Consonant clusters can be based on vowel deletion of the word stem.
G. 5. Word stress Word stress can be based on the syllabic structure of words and on the morphological principle. 1. e. the stress is pretonic. g. g. g. g. e. heavy syllables attract the stress. 2. e. the stress is conditioned by the inflectional categories of the word. The stress pattern within citation (Absolutive) forms of nouns follows the same rules as for the syllabic stress (discussed above). When the oblique cases are formed the stress pattern is triggered by the syllabic structure of the word.
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