September 2, 2017

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By Ranko Matasović

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G. I am sitting), bivalent (e. g. I am hitting an enemy), trivalent (e. g. I am giving a book to a friend), possibly also quadrivalent (e. g. I am buying a book from a friend for twenty pounds). Verb valency is a semantic concept, realized in syntax through the category of transitivity. In most languages, bi- and trivalent verbs are realized as transitive verbs, i. e. verbs which have a compulsory nominal complement (direct object), possibly two complements (direct and indirect object). Arguments of bivalent verbs express different thematic roles according to the types of meaning they express.

Be-impf. -fight-fut. give-ger. know-ger. -fight-fut. ara. -af. af. -af. -af. 54 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian "The old Narts had the custom to give the enemy the date, to send him the message that they would come to fight: "We will come to fight at that time", they used to say. " In the preceding passage, apparently, the Narts used the factual future to give the exact time when they would come to fight, while their enemies just indicated that they would come to fight, without stating exactly when.

Zaġawan "make someone hit himself". 45 Kumaxov 1971: 206. g.. e. a-t-yə... -af. "(His) friend had five geese... and he made his mother cook them, and he brought them to the lord" Cf. also źan "burn" (intransitive): ġa-źan "burn" (transitive): ġa-ġa-źan "make someone burn". Case assignment with causative verbs is typologically very unusual46. The case of the arguments in a causative construction is not determined by that verb, which is always transitive, but by the verb from which the causative verb is derived.

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