By Martin Gogolla
This textual content provides a finished creation to a longer Entity-Relationship version either on a conceptual and on a proper, mathematicallevel. as well as the primitives given by means of the information version the textual content introduces a language for the formula of constraints in an effort to limit database states to constant ones. The textual content explains an implementation of the process selected within the good judgment programing language PROLOG and discusses during this context the computational strength of the proposedcalculus. The prolonged Entity-Relationship calculus is used to outline the which means of the relational question language SQL. a pleasant characteristic of the strategy is that it turns into attainable to end up language houses on a valid mathematical basis.
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Additional info for An Extended Entity-Relationship Model: Fundamentals and Pragmatics
12. CHAPTER 2. 11: Forbidden and permissible cases for type constructions. 12: Acyclicity of type constructions. Since the functions input and output yield sets of entity types, each two input and each two output types must be different. 13. , Cn. 13: Uniquely determined construction path for constructed entities. 19 E x a m p l e : T y p e c o n s t r u c t i o n In our current example we have CONSTRUCTION -- (are}, input(are) = (SEA, LAKE, RIVER} and output(are) = (WATERS}. This construction are is a generalization.
Sec t i o n 3A Motivation Taking our extended Entity-Relationship model as a base, we would now like to give a first impression of the extended Entity-Relationship calculus built upon it by means of our geo-scientific example. This calculus can be considered as a high-level and descriptive query language for the extended Entity-Relationship model. Our calculus follows the definition of the well-known tuple calculus [Mai83], however we prefer the notation of [Pir79]. For example, 36 CHAPTER 3. EXTENDED ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP CALCULUS -[ pname(p) I (p : PERSON) A 3 (c : COUNTRY) (cname(c) = 'Italy' A 3 (t : TOWN) (is-mayor-of(p,t) A lies-in(c,t) ) ) l expresses the query "Give me the names of the mayors of Italian towns".
Ii. ni) :-- (v}. iii. ~ with free(so~t(tin)) := free(h,). iv. Ifc E CONSTRUCTION, s~, E input(c) and to~t E T E R M ..... then s~(to~t) E TERMs,. with free(s~(to~t)) :-- free(to,t). v. ,t,)) := free(t1) U ... U free(t,). SECTION 3C. TERMS AND FORMULAS 41 vi. k), and f E F O R M with decl(d~) n decl(di)=0 and decl(di) n free(dj)--0 for i~j be given. ,t, [ dl A ... ^ dk A f ]- E TERM. ,tn [ dl A ... ,sn)) f• free(-[ t l , . . , t , [ d l A ... A dk A f ]-) := (free(dl) U ... U free(dk) U free(tl) U ...
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